New Discoveries for Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
A powerful pro-inflammatory protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), can suppress facets of inflammation. The identification in the process connected with how this works could potentially lead to brand new treatment for rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.
Just before this research, TNF has long been referred to as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, but if you look carefully through the materials, there are suggestions that it also has some suppressive functions, yet absolutely nothing had been known concerning the mechanisms. This is truly the very first mechanism showing how TNF can turn inflammation down.
Researchers created experiments stimulating macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a prototypical inflammatory factor that encourages receptors important in inflammation. In test tube reports, the study treated human monocytes and macrophages, cells which have a vital function within inflammatory diseases, with TNF and then challenged these cells with LPS.
They discovered that the TNF suppressed the actual inflammatory reaction of the macrophages and monocytes. Then they gave mice reduced doses of TNF followed by higher doses of LPS and found that the mice were protected from the effects of large dose LPS, which can be generally fatal. They discovered that the mechanism by which TNF covered up the inflammatory reaction involved a protein known as GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha) and a gene referred to as TNFAIP3 that encodes the A20 protein. Studies with a drug that may inhibit GSK3 as well as experiments together with RNA interference of A20, which could stop A20 gene function, helped identify the functions of the protein and gene.
Most people think it is relevant to rheumatoid arthritis, not merely because the cells we’re studying (the macrophages) tend to be exactly the same cellular material which migrate into joints making the inflammatory cytokines associated with rheumatoid arthritis, but because A20 is involved. TNFAIP3 is among the best linked genes to rheumatoid arthritis. There are polymorphisms in the A20 gene that have been linked to RA pathogenesis.
Exactly what the study shows that is new is that TNF has suppressive functions along with its well-known initiating capabilities, Prior to this study, persons believed it would control adaptive defenses, but remarkably we found that it really suppresses a cell of the innate immune system, the macrophage, the identical cell that makes it and, by doing that, it regulates its own creation.